Joe Whyte has posted a post on Google Filters, how to get around them and exploit their loop holes. Joe is an SEO expert and has experienced many strange occurrences which are directly linked to Google Filter or Google Penalty. He has put together a list of potential Google Penalties and how to go about them. However there is no confirmation that these penalties exist rather they are the Joe's own ideas and assumptions.
According to Joe the possible Google filters or penalties are:
Google Sandbox: The Sandbox Filter is usually applied to brand new websites but has been seen to be applied to domains that have been around for a while.
Google -30: This Google filter is applied to site’s who use spammy seo tactics. When Google find you using doorway pages, java redirects etc then they will drop your rankings by 30 spots.
Google Bombing: Google Bombing is a filter applied to sites who gain a large number of inbound links with the same anchor text.
Google Bowling: This is not really a filter as much as it is a series of black hat techniques that will get you banned. Usually people use this term in reference to competition or a page/site they want OUT of the serps.
Google Duplicate Content Filter: A duplicate content filter is applied to sites who take content that has already been created, cached and indexed on other sites.
Google Supplemental Results: Google supplemental results take pages on your site that have been indexed and put them into a sub database in Google.
Google Domain name Age Filter: The Google domain name age filter is closely related to trust rank and the sandbox but it is possible to be out of the sandbox and have trust rank and still be in this filter.
Google’s Omitted Results Filter: Pages within your website that are in omitted search results will not show up in a Google search unless a user specifically says to show all omitted results.
Google’s Trust Rank Filter: Like the PageRank algorithm the trust rank algorithm has many factors that determine a sites trust rank. Some of the known factors are the age of a site, the amount of quality authority links pointing to it, how many outbound links it has, the quality of its inbound linking structure, internal linking structure and overall SEO best practices on meta and url structure.
links.htm page filter: This filter penalizes a sites ranking determined by the use of a links.html page. Using reciprocal linking is a old technique that is not promoted by Google anymore.
Reciprocal Link Filter: Google is very open about reciprocal linking and clearly states that their algorithm can detect reciprocal link campaigns.
Link Farming Filter: Link farms are sites/pages that have a mass amount of unrelated links grouped together arbitrarily.
CO-citation Linking Filter: This popular filter by Google watches your inbound link structure. If your link is on a site who’s outbound links are related to casino’s and porn sites and your automotive site is an outbound link on this site then google will think your site is related to porn and casinos.
To many links at once Filter: This filter is applied when to many inbound links are acquired by a site to fast. The result can lead to a ban across all search engines.
To many Pages at once filter: Google is keen on natural site development. Anything that look “unnatural” is going to be flaged by the search engines.
Broken Link Filter: Broken internal links can cause pages from not being crawled, cached and indexed.
Page Load Time Filter: The page load filter is very simple. If your website takes to long to load then a spider will time out and move past your site or page.
Over Optimization Filter: Over optimization can cause a Google ban or hardship in rankings. Over optimization could be considered keyword stuffing, to much keyword density and keyword proximity optimization, meta tag stuffing etc.