Core Web Vitals were first introduced in May 2020. It’s Google’s way of maintaining the quality of the search results. Core Web Vitals were made a ranking signal in July, 2021.
These include https, mobile responsive, absence of popups, banners and unnecessary overlays.
It has now become important for all website wonders to adhere to these to ensure Google ranks their website in organic search. Google also assesses a website based on how well visitors engage on a website.
Check this infographic by Digital Marketing Philippines to know more about Google Core Web Vitals.